Previously, she was a researcher with the United Nations University Centre for Policy Research in Tokyo where she conducted research on terrorism, organised crime, and peacekeeping. explains that how we can reduce the income inequality in Pakistan. She has over six years of experience Varieties are no threat to a language, rather it enriches it. For example, in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit-Baltistan all the languages other than Hindko and Burushaski are Dardic of the Indo-Aryan branch of languages. Required fields are marked *. Poverty in Pakistan has historically been higher in rural than urban areas. They have started to demand more rights. working with individuals and groups of people who are in conflict with the law; primarily those incarcerated as under trial prisoners. between language, geography and inequality in Pakistan and study in detail the changing structure of ethnolinguistic divides, class cleavages and their intersection in light of our electoral data. This is the result of a particular kind of education we have experienced in Pakistan. Zubair was recently awarded the Prof. Anita Ghulam Ali Award of Teachers and Education in Emergencies. She is also a research assistant at the Violence Research Centre, facilitator of Learning Together at HMP Grendon, and senior research coordinator at the Legal Aid Office in Karachi. Born and raised in Bahrain Swat, Pakistan, he heads the Institute for Education and Development, a civil society organization working for the conservation of cultural, lingual and natural heritage among the linguistic communities in north Pakistan. Poverty rose more sharply in the rural areas in the 1990s, and in FY1999 the incidence of rural poverty (36.3 percent) was significantly higher than urban poverty (22.6 percent). I mention these as these scholars want to take on the extremists who persecute religious minorities, Your email address will not be published. Oxford Human Rights Hub Accordingly, we are guided by the UNDP Gender Equality Strategy 2014–2017, advancing the empowerment of women as we support countries in their efforts to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality. Women in Pakistan make up 48.76% of the population according to the 2017 census of Pakistan. In Pakistan, only about 1 percent of the population is registered in the tax system and the government collects just 9 percent of the country’s wealth in taxes which is the lowest in the world. Many Pakistani scholars focus on the lack of productivity and low literacy levels of the domestic workforce to explain poverty in Pakistan. Hopefully, such initiatives for the remaining languages in the province will also be undertaken. We finally conclude this paper by focusing on the representation of religious minorities and the role Both English and Urdu are regarded as the languages of development; in a way they are made so. This is the same axis along which UNDP Pakistan’s National Human Development Report on Inequality, authored by leading economist Dr. Hafiz Pasha, is based. Ultimately, the report shows that the odds are clearly stacked, in a wide range of ways, along gender, ethnic, linguistic, class and sexual orientation lines – to name but a few. Pakistan’s president has issued a new law to fight sexual assault, following months of protests over two men raping a women along a deserted highway near Lahore. New Oxford vs Cambridge Moot Court Case Competition on Disability Law, U of OxHRH J Call for Submissions-Taking Stock: Ten Years of the Equality Act 2010. Pakistan’s gradual decadence of cultural and linguistic diversity is overshadowed by terrorism, poor governance, and dirty politics. This accelerates the “language and culture shift” within society and ends with more chaos and an unending identity crisis. And if somebody speaks either English or Urdu in his own accent, he is regarded as less educated. He speaks Punjabi,” said the principal of a private school in Lahore. What Everybody Should Know About the Pashtunwali and Torah, Little Known Ways Afghans and Jews are Similar, The Land of the Unsettling Sun: Japan's Revisionist Slide under Abe. The 18th Amendment to the Constitution in 2010 is a right step towards this goal. Pakistan’s poor ranking presents a bleak portrait of the state of modest progress made on female empowerment and gender equality. This ‘language sexism’ is biased in the favor of one gender and treat the other discriminately. Inequality in both urban and rural areas also increased in Pakistan during the 1990s, which enhanced the negative impact on poverty. Can trans children consent to puberty blocking drugs? Instead of being proud of the beautiful linguistic diversity, Pakistani policy and decision makers have always been afraid of it. Her children were also in … These issues should be dealt with effectively through practical and implementable initiatives. Pakistan has an estimated population of 195.4 million in 2016, however, the population was 191.71 million in 2015. The most prestigious educated person is considered one who speaks English well. Forced conversions and desecration of places of worship form a minority of complaints from the selected sample. In addition to these policies, extensive research is needed for the standardization of the orthographies of these languages. The linguistic items one knows show the experience of the person. On the other hand, this “one language-one religion-one nation” policy establishes the hegemony of a single language and consequently of an alien culture since language is the most effective driver of culture. explore the impact of educational inequality in Pakistan on economic 1 As per Government of Pakistan (2008) literacy is defined as “Ability to read and write simple statements in any language and to be able to do simple calculations”. Women in Pakistan have played an important role throughout Pakistan's history and they are allowed to vote in elections since 1956. Features of Indian multilingualism are discussed to show that, despite several positive forces favoring maintenance of minority languages, languages are subjected to inequality and discrimination. To reverse this trend, a concerted effort is needed across government, judiciary, and civil society. The principal drove away a student whose father, a lover of his language, brought him to the school. To do so, they make use of a unique set of polls covering all … Pakistan’s cultural and linguistic diversity has never been a favorite subject in the channels of national discourse either in media, education or academia. Ranjanpur) compared to northern (Lahore, Gujranwala) and central districts (Sargodha, Hafizabad). Recent years have seen an intensification of violent persecution of religious minorities. But one shouldn’t jump to conclusions. More than 65 different languages are spoken in Pakistan. Just How Similar are Pashtun and Jewish People? During General Zia ul Haq’s dictatorial regime, a series of policies were adopted that have negatively impacted religious minorities. As of 2006, only 50% of the population was literate and government spending on education was still only half of the average of many other developing countries (2% versus 3-4%).However 3-4 years later, improvements led literacy levels to climb up to 60% of the population. Muslim‟s religious book Quran is in Arabic language. Most of the sounds are identical in these languages but so far the community researchers haven’t realized this and have written the same sounds with different letters. For example, Punjab may be among the most developed province but persistent disparity abounds in southern Punjab (e.g. Pakistan is one of the worst countries to live in as a member of a religious minority group, due to the lack of human rights protection accorded to minority communities. Constitutional safeguards and legal precedents alone will not be enough to alleviate the suffering of minorities in Pakistan. What is Linguistic Inequality? http://co.lao.org.pk/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Prioritizing-Needs-September-15-2016.pdf. Zubair Torwali is a researcher, linguist, and human rights activist. These grievances indicate the growing disenfranchisement of minority communities in Pakistan who suffer from class-based issues, which are further exacerbated by rampant institutional and individual discrimination on the basis of their religion. Definition of Linguistic Inequality: Refers to the inability to manipulate a particular variety of a language within a particular context, either through lack of exposure or through some form of disadvantage. The most harmful among the factors for linguistic and cultural chaos is the national policies of education. Inequality also increased in Pakistan during the 1990s, in both urban and rural areas, The Faculty of Law, University of Oxford, Similarly, the community researchers in the “minority languages” who do some excellent jobs of diglossic importance need to sit together when creating orthographies for their languages. In this paper, Amory Gethin, Sultan Mehmood and Thomas Piketty study political cleavages in Pakistan. This article reflects on the findings of a new report by The Legal Aid Society. Pakistan’s cultural and linguistic diversity has never been a favorite subject in the channels of national discourse either in media, education or academia. Even within a province inequality can be glaring. More and more women in Pakistan are fed up with gender inequality. According to research conducted at Harvard School of Public Heath, the inequality between males and females has led to an alarming discrepancy: in Pakistan, 65% of Punjabi urban males had completed primary school, but only 10% of rural Balochi and Pathan females completed primary school. A standardization in the orthographies with more commonalities not only will make their job easier but also integrate the speakers and enhance their political and social powers. Pakistan is one of the worst countries to live in as a member of a religious minority group, due to the lack of human rights protection accorded to minority communities. Today almost all the comic text messages are related to Pathans and Sikhs. Furthermore, it resolved to incorporate four other languages (Hinko, Khowar, Seriaki and Indus Kohistani) to be gradually incorporated in the education at the primary stages. And in the place of equality for women, violence became the 'rule of the land'. As a recent report highlights, religious minority groups feel the effects of this legal and political marginalisation and disenfranchisement in their daily lives. Certain legislation and constitutional amendments further deprived religious minorities of human rights, justice, political equality and economic opportunities. More about Essay On Gender Inequality In Pakistan. The asymmetry of the linguistic setting inside Afghanistan is strengthened by intensified processes of language contact with the unequal language partners of Persian in Iran and Pashto in Pakistan. Pashto, for instance, with its multiple varieties in Pakistan and in Afghanistan, contains different symbols which make it difficult for the reader to articulate. This includes a discriminatory educational curriculum and an underlying radicalisation of thought which adopted an “us vs. them” narrative. Pakistan has literacy rate 58percent in 2012, (Only 22 percent of girls, compared to 47 percent boys, complete primary schooling (Economic Survey of Pakistan 2012).This is included people who can write and … After collecting and analysing 629 qualitative interviews from the districts of Sukkur, Larkana and Ghotki in Sindh, the following findings are highlighted: As the above findings highlight, participants mostly cited the issues of acquiring national identity cards, access to reliable electricity, unemployment, crimes, and access to educational opportunities. Ghosh not only presents the reader with a political vision that questions the ethno-linguistic and cultural divides created by the fiery resurgence of nationalist ideologies but also interweaves that vision with the human story. Oxford OX1 3UL, © 2020 Oxford Human Rights Hub | Site by One, Menaal Munshey and Haya Zahid - Read the full report here: http://co.lao.org.pk/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Prioritizing-Needs-September-15-2016.pdf. This results in the perpetuation of a climate of impunity. For example, there is a constitutional ban on a non-Muslim being president of the country (as per Article 41(2) of Pakistan’s Constitution) and a lack of laws providing structure and support to religious minority communities. Within the justice system, there remains an overall tolerance of violations of religious freedoms and an inadequate approach towards protecting targets of such violence or effective prosecution of its perpetrators, including both State and non-State actors. The High Court of England and Wales doubts it. What you Need to Know About Pakistan’s Linguistic Diversity, Zubair Torwali, Researcher, Linguist and Human Rights Activist, Why Shimon Peres Would Have Rejected Trump’s ‘Deal of the Century’. See also Marrakesh Declaration 2016 on the same subject. Report reveals women in Pakistan are simultaneously deprived in child marriages, education, healthcare and employment. Therefore, the true essence of the religion has been compromised, as is evident in Pakistan. Haya Emaan Zahid is a barrister-at-law, who read law at the University College London, United Kingdom. Her research and writings explore the fields of political participation, inequality, and the political economy of public policy and service delivery. A myriad of challenges including political instability, gender disparity, growing inequality, and disastrous effects of climate change face the country today. Next, the one who speaks Urdu well. It relates to the linguistic items that a person knows. Religious minorities are largely implicated in these cases and are victims of vigilante violence. Haya is also member of the Board of the Legal Aid Society and Program Director at the Legal Aid Society and the Legal Aid Office, Committee for the Welfare of Prisoners. The prevalence of customary laws became more visible as Islam travelled far and wide. But the most important is to minimize the income inequality. A primary tool used for reestablishing this ‘inferior’ social identity was the law. St Cross Building, (Image credit: Vaigaraiyan via Flickr). These themes are Income Level, Geographical Inequality, Gender Inequality, System of Education, Feudalism, Role of Government, etc. A defining feature of Pakistan’s economy and society is the inequality of income and productive assets. Is It Time For The Arab Gulf States To Support Alternative Palestinian Parties? Globally and in Pakistan, we integrate the experiences … The language activists in these communities may know that they, more or less, share the same ancestor and same culture. Many hindrances in reading and writing a language rest in the orthography or its writing system. It may or may not interest you, a group of North American Muslim scholars (yaqeen institute) are working on a document for the protection of minorities in places like Pakistan. 31st January 2017, As the data shows, minority communities' concerns are complex and reflect the deep discrimination they face in society. “I don’t want to learn Torwali as I understand it. Minority communities’ lives are increasingly marred by negative social identity, insecurity and a lack of human rights protection. Pashto needs a central standard form similar to that of English as BBC English. Despite its evolution and progression one aspect of language seems to be constant, that is, its role in stimulating gender inequality. INTRODUCTION The basic objective of economic development is improvements in the living standards of the common man and for that just economic growth would not be sufficient. Shandana Khan Mohmand is a Research Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, and an Associate Fellow at the Institute of Development and Economic Alternatives in Pakistan. ✅ Smart and meaningful stories ✅ Insightful analysis ✅ Exclusive interviews with thought leaders, Unique commentary straight from the people who live it. Income Inequality in Pakistan: An Analysis of Existing Evidence (Economic GROWTH, INCOME DISTRIBUTION AND EMPLOYMENT Generation) (Report) Pakistan Development Review 1984, … Should All Male Prisoners be Required to Have Their Hair Cut? From Paralysis to Action: A Peace Plan for Palestinians and Israelis to Consider. inequality, even degrading to severe form of violence, which is rampant in Pakistan. I will attend the Women Education Center when Urdu starts there,” an illiterate Torwali woman told this scribe when asked to attend the women literacy centers established in the community by Idara Baraye Taleem-o-Taraqi (IBT) with the financial support of USAID. This can be done through civil society efforts, public awareness drives, capacity building, the provision of legal aid, and the incorporation of these findings in donor and government strategies. Menaal Munshey and Haya Emaan Zahid, “Inequality and Discrimination faced by Religious Minorities in Pakistan” (OxHRH, 31 January 2017) [Date of Access]. St Cross Road, However, as highlighted by a recent report, this does not describe the full extent of the human rights issues faced by minority communities in Pakistan. Between provinces, Sindh is the most deprived. In 2013, there were 39 blasphemy cases registered against 359 people, and over 40 people are on death row for blasphemy. To cope with the hegemony of a single language educational policies need revision. The Pashto speakers, who cannot pronounce certain words of Urdu in a correct way, are always laughed at in media. In Pakistan, … In the wake of the devolution of education to the provinces, the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa government adopted Pashto as a medium of instruction in primary education. INCOME INEQUALITIES IN PAKISTAN AND A STRATEGY TO REDUCE INCOME INEQUALITIES by A. R. Kemal I. Although agriculture is the main activity in rural society, a significant percentage of the rural labor force, estimated at more than 40%, depends completely on nonfarm activities. Menaal Munshey is a PhD candidate in criminology at the University of Cambridge. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Looking superficially at the above observations one tends to assume that the “speakers of the concerned languages” do not want their languages to be used in education or in media. SHARNOFF'S GLOBAL VIEWS® is a registered trademark of THE SHARNOFF GROUP, LLC. There are almost 5000 languages in the world and most of them have apparent sexist predispositions. Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world, with sixty percent of its population under the age of thirty. Your email address will not be published. These statistics therefore show that religious minorities’ grievances are largely economic in nature, and are rooted in issues of equality and equal citizenship. Thank you both, please keep working on this issue. “Friend, look he (Zubair) drags us back by starting schools in Torwali,” a teacher told his colleague who was discussing the multilingual education initiative by IBT in Bahrain Swat. Essay On Gender Inequality In Pakistan 949 Words | 4 Pages. Read other articles by Zubair. Recent years have seen an intensification of violent persecution of religious minorities. Linguistic Inequality It is typically a different concept than which runs through the whole chapter as general idea of the linguistic inequality. Urdu 65% Sindhi 15.5% English 10.4% Other languages 9.5% Thus, in Pakistan, linguistic (and social) inequality is mediated through kinds of educational institutions with distinct educational practices related to medium of instruction and tracking of students into the local exam boards or University of Cambridge curricula and examination systems (Mansoor, 2005; Rahman, 1999). Pakistan’s blasphemy laws present possibly the most violent example of this: Since 1990, more than 62 people have been killed by blasphemy related vigilante violence. In this study we have considered all those as illiterates whose years of … Enforcing a single language through educational and security policies to achieve an imagined national cohesion is like a Trojan Horse which strikes down the very objectives for which it was intended. Read More. While this data does not trivialise the issues of blasphemy or forced conversions, it seeks to highlight other key legal and governance issues facing these communities, such as access to public goods and services. During our interviews with professional people, different types of themes emerged. Social Inequality and the Dynamics of Political and ethnolinguistic Divides in Pakistan, 1970-2018. Girls in Pakistan have the right to education. There is thus a need to address the socio-economic issues that affect the day-to-day life of members of these communities, while not losing sight of the larger issues of forced conversion and blasphemy. Studies of language-based inequality have hitherto largely focused on the case of linguistic minorities, while far less attention has been paid to the developmental stakes of a more equitable terrain for widely-spoken languages in education, training and access to livelihoods. UN Women report shows worrying degree of gender inequality in Pakistan “Evaluating health and education of women as well as economic opportunities, Pakistan is … When a particular language is given an advantage over others speakers of the less developed languages tend to look down on their own languages and cultures and regard them as the barriers in their “development.”. Yuri Block F 6/12/15 Challenges Pakistani Women Face due to Gender Inequality Many fail to realize, due to long held beliefs and social norms, that gender equality is beneficial to both men and women. The resultant inequality of opportunity is an as yet unrecognised form of injustice. But the reality is that despite an ostrich strategy, events like the separation of former East Pakistan and national wounds related to that are haunting us and will definitely do so for an indefinite future unless we craft policies ensuring the share of this diversity. As the data shows, minority communities’ concerns are complex and reflect the deep discrimination they face in society. UN Women report shows worrying degree of gender inequality in Pakistan. The above “linguistic attitudes” towards the languages by the native speakers are the direct outcomes of the policies the state has held dear for decades. “Out, out. Using Different Native Languages in the Classroom: Mostly the Pakistani students faced this kind of … The center for this standard can either be Peshawar or Kabul. Explains that how we can reduce the income inequality Insightful analysis ✅ interviews... Religion has been compromised, as is evident in Pakistan have played an important role throughout 's... Social identity, insecurity and a lack of human rights activist a right step towards this goal for standard! High Court of England and Wales doubts it to cope with the hegemony of a of... In society somebody speaks either English or Urdu in a correct way, are always laughed in! 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And dirty politics marginalisation and disenfranchisement in their daily lives and rural areas also increased Pakistan! Candidate in criminology at the University of Cambridge that have negatively impacted religious minorities of human rights activist political and. A lack of productivity and low literacy levels of the population according to the school working on this.! Are Dardic of the beautiful linguistic diversity, Pakistani policy and service delivery scholars focus on the extremists persecute... To a language rest in the world and most of them have apparent sexist predispositions London, Kingdom...

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